NSAIDS have antipyretic activity and can be used to treat fever.   Fever is caused by elevated levels of prostaglandin E2 , which alters the firing rate of neurons within the hypothalamus that control thermoregulation.   Antipyretics work by inhibiting the enzyme COX, which causes the general inhibition of prostanoid biosynthesis ( PGE2 ) within the hypothalamus .   PGE2 signals to the hypothalamus to increase the body's thermal set point.   Ibuprofen has been shown more effective as an antipyretic than paracetamol (acetaminophen).   Arachidonic acid is the precursor substrate for cyclooxygenase leading to the production of prostaglandins F, D & E.
Bark from the white willow tree is one of the oldest herbal remedies for pain and inflammation, dating back to ancient Egyptian, Roman, Greek, and Indian civilizations, as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. The mechanism of action of white willow bark is similar to that of aspirin which is used to block inflammatory prostaglandins. Salicin from white willow bark is converted to salicylic acid by the liver and is considered to have fewer side effects than aspirin. Although the analgesic actions of willow are typically slow-acting, they last longer than aspirin.
Inflammation plays an important role in various diseases with high prevalence within populations such as rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis and asthma. Here we demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of various fruits, herbs and spices in a lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage model. These compounds acted by reduction of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production, enhancement of anti-inflammatory IL-10 production, or reduction of cyclooxygenase-2 or inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. The highest anti-inflammatory potential was detected with chili pepper. Among the plants that improved the secreted cytokine profile were allspice, basil, bay leaves, black pepper, licorice, nutmeg, oregano, sage and thyme. The compounds apigenin, capsaicin, chrysin, diosmetin, kämpferol, luteolin, naringenin, quercetin and resveratrol moderately reduced IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion. Resveratrol and rosmarinic acid increased secretion of IL-10. Our findings further the idea that a diet rich in fruits, herbs and spices may contribute to the reduction of the inflammatory response and related diseases.