Anabolic pathways involved in the synthesis of essential molecules are usually regulated by


Side-effects from the use of steroids are extremely common and can be quite significant. Most side-effects are reversible once the athlete stops usage although serious long-term side-effects and even death have occurred as a direct result of steroid use.
    •    Decreased sperm production and sex drive
    •    Increased aggression, irritability and mood swings
    •    Liver disorders
    •    Acne
    •    Baldness (alopecia)
    •    Hypertension (high blood pressure)
    •    Raised cholesterol
    •    Gynecomastia (development of over-sized mammary glands in males)
    •    Menstrual irregularities (in women)
    •    Hirsuitism (excessive hair growth occurring in females which follows the pattern of male hair growth, . facial)
    •    Deepening of the voice
    •    Reduced immunity
    •    Possible development of tumors (wilm’s tumor, prostate carcinoma and leukemia have been reported, although a connection is not proven)

The immediate effects of AAS in the brain are mediated by their binding to androgen (male sex hormone) and estrogen (female sex hormone) receptors on the surface of a cell. This AAS–receptor complex can then shuttle into the cell nucleus to influence patterns of gene expression. Because of this, the acute effects of AAS in the brain are substantially different from those of other drugs of abuse. The most important difference is that AAS are not euphorigenic, meaning they do not trigger rapid increases in the neurotransmitter dopamine , which is responsible for the “high” that often drives substance abuse behaviors. However, long-term use of AAS can eventually have an impact on some of the same brain pathways and chemicals—such as dopamine, serotonin, and opioid systems—that are affected by other drugs of abuse. Considering the combined effect of their complex direct and indirect actions, it is not surprising that AAS can affect mood and behavior in significant ways.

Long before the era of high-throughput screening and genomics, drug discovery relied heavily on natural compounds. In fact, many of the drugs available today contain active ingredients extracted from natural products. Since 1994, nearly half of all drugs were discovered using natural products. Furthermore, between 2005 and 2007, there were 13 new drugs based on natural products that entered the commercial market, including the following 5 new products: small molecule ixabepilone, retapamulin, trabectedin, and the peptides exenatide and ziconotide. Clearly, natural product drug discovery programs continue to play a significant role in the clinical development of new therapies in the biopharmaceutical industry.

An excellent text. It presents Biochemistry with frequent references to organic chemistry and biochemical logic. Highly reccommended for students of Biochemistry, Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Biochemistry, Stryer A widely used classical text, frequently updated and re-issued. Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, Thomas Devlin Strongly advised to students in Nursing, Medicine, Dentistry, etc. Plenty of examples of application of biochemical knowledge to clinical cases. Principles of Biochemistry, Lehninger A widely used classical text, frequently updated and re-issued. visitas desde 4 de Janeiro de 2002

Anabolic pathways involved in the synthesis of essential molecules are usually regulated by

anabolic pathways involved in the synthesis of essential molecules are usually regulated by

An excellent text. It presents Biochemistry with frequent references to organic chemistry and biochemical logic. Highly reccommended for students of Biochemistry, Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Biochemistry, Stryer A widely used classical text, frequently updated and re-issued. Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations, Thomas Devlin Strongly advised to students in Nursing, Medicine, Dentistry, etc. Plenty of examples of application of biochemical knowledge to clinical cases. Principles of Biochemistry, Lehninger A widely used classical text, frequently updated and re-issued. visitas desde 4 de Janeiro de 2002

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