Biosynthetic pathway for carotenoids and its relationship with the steroids

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In bacteria, the enzyme glutamate 5-kinase initiates the biosynthesis of proline by transferring a phosphate group from ATP onto glutamate. The next reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS), which catalyzes the reduction of the ϒ-carboxyl group of L-glutamate 5-phosphate. This results in the formation of glutamate semialdehyde, which spontaneously cyclizes to pyrroline-5-carboxylate. Pyrroline-5-carboxylate is further reduced by the enzyme pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) to yield a proline amino acid. [28]

Polyketides are structurally a very diverse family of natural products with diverse biological activities and pharmacological properties. [3] They are broadly divided into three classes: type I polyketides (often macrolides produced by multimodular megasynthases ), type II polyketides (often aromatic molecules produced by the iterative action of dissociated enzymes ), and type III polyketides (often small aromatic molecules produced by fungal species). Polyketide antibiotics , antifungals , cytostatics , anticholesteremic , antiparasitics , coccidiostats , animal growth promoters and natural insecticides are in commercial use. [ citation needed ]

The shikimate pathway consists of seven enzymatic reactions whose end product chorismate is the precursor for the synthesis of the aromatic amino acids Phe, Tyr and Trp. In fungi and plants, chorismate is a precursor for many specialised metabolites (. secondary metabolites) that play an important role in the plant's interaction with its environment. The shikimate pathway and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis have been extensively studied in a variety of microorganisms, fungi and plants. Furthermore, the dual involvement of the shikimate and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways in central and specialised metabolism still raises major questions regarding the genes and enzymes involved, and their control, their evolutionary origins and coordinated regulation with genes of associated pathways in response to altered environmental conditions and diverse developmental programs.

Biosynthetic pathway for carotenoids and its relationship with the steroids

biosynthetic pathway for carotenoids and its relationship with the steroids

The shikimate pathway consists of seven enzymatic reactions whose end product chorismate is the precursor for the synthesis of the aromatic amino acids Phe, Tyr and Trp. In fungi and plants, chorismate is a precursor for many specialised metabolites (. secondary metabolites) that play an important role in the plant's interaction with its environment. The shikimate pathway and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis have been extensively studied in a variety of microorganisms, fungi and plants. Furthermore, the dual involvement of the shikimate and aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathways in central and specialised metabolism still raises major questions regarding the genes and enzymes involved, and their control, their evolutionary origins and coordinated regulation with genes of associated pathways in response to altered environmental conditions and diverse developmental programs.

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