Function of fats lipids and steroids

The basic structure of phospolipids is very similar to that of the triglycerides except that C–3 ( sn 3)of the glycerol backbone is esterified to phosphoric acid. The building block of the phospholipids is phosphatidic acid. Substitutions that can be added to phosphatidic acid include ethanolamine (phosphatidylethanolamines, PE), choline (phosphatidylcholines, PC: also called lecithins), serine (phosphatidylserines, PS), glycerol (phosphatidylglycerols, PG), myo -inositol (phosphatidylinositols, PI: these compounds can have a variety in the numbers of inositol alcohols that are phosphorylated generating polyphosphatidylinositols), and phosphatidylglycerol (diphosphatidylglycerols, DPG; more commonly known as cardiolipins). See the Lipid Synthesis page for images of the various phospholipids.

Proteins in the body are constantly broken down and re-synthesized. Our bodies reuse most of the released amino acids, but a small portion is lost and must be replaced in the diet. The requirement for protein reflects this lost amount of amino acids plus any increased needs from growth or illness. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein for adults is g/kg of body weight. Because of their rapid growth, infants have the highest RDA for protein at g/kg of body weight. The RDA gradually decreases until adulthood. It increases again during pregnancy and lactation to a level of g/kg. The RDA for an adult weighing 140 pounds ( kg) is a mere 51 grams of protein, an amount many of us consume before mid-afternoon.

Unlike  carbohydrates , proteins and nucleic acids they aren’t polymers but small molecules, with a molecular weights that range between 100 and 5000, and also vary considerably in polarity, including hydrophobic molecules, like triglycerides or sterol esters, and others more water-soluble like phospholipids or very short-chain fatty acids , the latter completely miscible with water and insoluble in non polar solvents.
The little or absent water-solubility of many of them means that they are subject to special treatments at all stages of their utilization, that is in the course of digestion , absorption , transport, storage and use.

The largest lipoproteins, which primarily transport fats from the intestinal mucosa to the liver , are called chylomicrons . They carry mostly fats in the form of triglycerides. In the liver, chylomicron particles release triglycerides and some cholesterol. The liver converts unburned food metabolites into very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and secretes them into plasma where they are converted to intermediate density lipoproteins(IDL), which thereafter are converted to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and non-esterified fatty acids, which can affect other body cells. In healthy individuals, the relatively few LDL particles are large. In contrast, large numbers of small dense LDL (sdLDL) particles are strongly associated with the presence of atheromatous disease within the arteries. For this reason, LDL is referred to as "bad cholesterol".

Function of fats lipids and steroids

function of fats lipids and steroids

The largest lipoproteins, which primarily transport fats from the intestinal mucosa to the liver , are called chylomicrons . They carry mostly fats in the form of triglycerides. In the liver, chylomicron particles release triglycerides and some cholesterol. The liver converts unburned food metabolites into very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and secretes them into plasma where they are converted to intermediate density lipoproteins(IDL), which thereafter are converted to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles and non-esterified fatty acids, which can affect other body cells. In healthy individuals, the relatively few LDL particles are large. In contrast, large numbers of small dense LDL (sdLDL) particles are strongly associated with the presence of atheromatous disease within the arteries. For this reason, LDL is referred to as "bad cholesterol".

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