Mechanism of cardiotonic steroids

To maintain anti-inflammatory effects while minimizing skin sensitization, a parthenolide-depleted (PD) extract of feverfew was developed. To ensure parthenolide was removed, over 1,200 patients were patch-tested for skin sensitization. The PD-feverfew inhibited the activity of 5-lipoxygenase, phosphodiesterase-3, and phosphodiesterase-4. It also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and tissue necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha from macrophages and TNF-alpha IL-2, IFN-gamma, and IL-4 from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. However, it was ineffective in the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 or -2. 6

This report describes various old and new positive inotropic drugs with respect to their mechanisms of action. Drugs with established cardiotonic effects include cardiac glycosides, beta 1-adrenergic agents, glucagon, histamine and the methylxanthines. New agents discussed are prenalterol, beta 2- and alpha-adrenergic drugs, amrinone and sulmazole. Prenalterol is a beta 1-adrenergic agent. Beta 2-adrenergic drugs, amrinone and sulmazole, combine a positive inotropic and a vasodilator effect. The latter resemble theophylline and other methylxanthines in that they appear to act mainly as phosphodiesterase inhibitors with a subsequent increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The mechanism of the positive inotropic effect of alpha-adrenergic stimulating agents (for example, phenylephrine) is unknown. It is independent of the cAMP system and is not accompanied by changes in frequency.

Stress and depression have now become common in day-to-day life. It is because there is so much work pressure and other tensions in life that no one can remain away from these two mental states. Apart from this, hectic lifestyle, wrong eating habits, improper meal times, lack of proper rest and sleep, lack of physical activity and impurity of almost all the foods items are also responsible for stress and depression. Even internal body structure, genes and hormonal imbalance in the body may also lead to stress and depression. This in turn has a negative effect on overall body health. In order to ensure good health and freedom from these negative mental states, you need to use some safe and effective formula so that your brain may be freed of all these thoughts and feelings. And Divya Medha Vati is apt in this regard. It is a unique herbal preparation presented by the pharmacy of Swami Ramdev Ji and helps in dealing with stress, tension, depression and similar mental states. It helps in ensuring overall body health.

  • Divya Medha Vati – Best Mind Booster and Memory Enhancer Herbal Tonic $ – $ Select options

Mechanism of cardiotonic steroids

mechanism of cardiotonic steroids


mechanism of cardiotonic steroidsmechanism of cardiotonic steroidsmechanism of cardiotonic steroidsmechanism of cardiotonic steroidsmechanism of cardiotonic steroids