Alvin H Schmaier, MD Robert W Kellermeyer Professor of Hematology/Oncology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine; Chief, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center
Alvin H Schmaier, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Federation for Medical Research , American Heart Association , American Society for Clinical Investigation , American Society of Hematology , Association of American Physicians , Central Society for Clinical and Translational Research , International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.
Many drugs used during the conduct of anesthesia are considered potential triggering agents for familial malignant hyperthermia. Because it is not known whether amide-type local anesthetics may trigger this reaction and because the need for supplemental general anesthesia cannot be predicted in advance, it is suggested that a standard protocol for management should be available. Early unexplained signs of tachycardia, tachypnea, labile blood pressure, and metabolic acidosis may precede temperature elevation. Successful outcome is dependent on early diagnosis, prompt discontinuance of the suspect triggering agent(s) and prompt institution of treatment, including oxygen therapy, indicated supportive measures and dantrolene (Consult dantrolene sodium intravenous package insert before using).
Generally well-tolerated when taken orally. The most common side effects, day-time drowsiness, headache and dizziness, appear to occur at the same frequency as with placebo. Other reported side effects include transient depressive symptoms, mild tremor, mild anxiety, abdominal cramps, irritability, reduced alertness, confusion, nausea, vomiting, and hypotension. Safety in Adults: Evidence indicates that it is likely safe to use in oral and parenteral forms for up to two months when used appropriately. Some evidence indicates that it can be safely used orally for up to 9 months in some patients. It is also likely safe to use topically when used appropriately. Safety in Children: Melatonin appeared to be used safely in small numbers of children enrolled in short-term clinical trials. However, concerns regarding safety in children have arisen based on their developmental state. Compared to adults over 20 years of age, people under 20 produce high levels of melatonin. Melatonin levels are inversely related to gonadal development and it is thought that exogenous administration of melatonin may adversely affect gonadal development. Safety during Pregnancy: High doses of melatonin administered orally or parenterally may inhibit ovulation. Not advised for use in individuals who are pregnant or trying to become pregnant. Safety during Lactation: Not recommended as safety has not be established.