The most common side effect of topical corticosteroid use is skin atrophy. All topical steroids can induce atrophy, but higher potency steroids, occlusion, thinner skin, and older patient age increase the risk. The face, the backs of the hands, and intertriginous areas are particularly susceptible. Resolution often occurs after discontinuing use of these agents, but it may take months. Concurrent use of topical tretinoin (Retin-A) % may reduce the incidence of atrophy from chronic steroid applications. 30 Other side effects from topical steroids include permanent dermal atrophy, telangiectasia, and striae.
Paired with the standard five-speed manual gearbox, the Abarth’s MultiAir engine produces 160 horsepower and 170 lb-ft of torque, while Abarths equipped with the paddle-shifted six-speed automatic sacrifice a few ponies but add more torque, producing 157 horses and 183 lb-ft. Monumental turbo lag throws a wet blanket over both powertrains, however, although the automatic suffers slightly less than the manual. With zero-to-60-mph times hovering around seven seconds, the Abarth isn’t as quick as its racy styling suggests. And despite the quicker and more tactile steering, stronger brakes, bolstered sport seats, and blatty exhaust note, the 500 Abarth finished in last place in 2012 and 2014 comparison tests .
Transdermal patches (adhesive patches placed on the skin) may also be used to deliver a steady dose through the skin and into the bloodstream. Testosterone-containing creams and gels that are applied daily to the skin are also available, but absorption is inefficient (roughly 10%, varying between individuals) and these treatments tend to be more expensive. Individuals who are especially physically active and/or bathe often may not be good candidates, since the medication can be washed off and may take up to six hours to be fully absorbed. There is also the risk that an intimate partner or child may come in contact with the application site and inadvertently dose himself or herself; children and women are highly sensitive to testosterone and can suffer unintended masculinization and health effects, even from small doses. Injection is the most common method used by individuals administering AAS for non-medical purposes.