Not shortly after Roger Maris record was broken, another baseball player, Jason Giambi and various other athletes were either suspected of, or proven to have, taken anabolic steroids. Again, Congress convened a hearing, and just as they did the first time in 1990, they did not determine that steroids were a danger, but rather that the danger was more in protecting professional sports organizations. The updated statute has been updated to proscribe pro-hormones also The definition of an anabolic steroid as defined currently in the United States under (41)(A) is that "anabolic steroid" means any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens , progestins, corticosteroids, and dehydroepiandrosterone (7).
In 2003, the United Nations Development Programme launched a project, called the Chernobyl Recovery and Development Programme (CRDP) , for the recovery of the affected areas.  The program, initiated in February 2002, based its activities on the Human Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident report recommendations. The main goal of the CRDP's activities is supporting the efforts of the Government of Ukraine to mitigate the long-term social, economic, and ecological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. CRDP works in the four areas of Ukraine that have been most affected by the Chernobyl nuclear accident: Kiev Oblast , Zhytomyrska Oblast , partially Kiev , Chernihivska Oblast , and Rivne Oblast .
The pharmacodynamics of anabolic steroids are unlike peptide hormones. Water-soluble peptide hormones cannot penetrate the fatty cell membrane and only indirectly affect the nucleus of target cells through their interaction with the cell’s surface receptors . Conversely, as fat-soluble hormones, anabolic steroids are membrane permeable and influence the nucleus of cells by direct action. The pharmacodynamic action of anabolic steroids begin when the exogenous hormone penetrates the membrane of the target cell and binds to an androgen receptor located in the cytoplasm of that cell. From there, the compound hormone-receptor diffuses into the nucleus, where it either alters the expression of genes [ 20 ] or activates processes that send signals to other parts of the cell. [ 21 ] Different types of anabolic steroids bind to the androgen receptor with different affinities , depending on their chemical structure. [ 3 ] Some anabolic steroids such as methandrostenolone bind weakly to this receptor in vitro, but still exhibit androgenic effects in vivo. The reason for this discrepancy is not known. [ 22 ] On the other hand, steroids such as oxandrolone bind tightly to the receptor and act mostly on gene expression . [ citation needed ]